Tuesday, March 01, 2005

Destruction of the Tropical Rainforests


“The Tropical Rain Forests”
are being destroyed and at the same time a biological inheritance, which is a very important value for the environment (Ehrlich, p.6, 1987). People and their acts are the responsible of these damages. Looking for development and city expansion, thinking about tropical forests as obstacles for their needs (Myers, 1988). As a result, many species have being eradicated, because of the absence of protection in tropical forests (Myers, 1988). Moreover, the situation is getting worst, in industrial nations the order of hardwood has ascended, also in tropical nations they need wood for fuel. “Consequently, much of this demand has been met by developing nations. Tropical nations also use large quantities of wood for fuel” (Myers, 1988). To show an example of the damage that have been made to forests, twelve percent of all Brazil’s forests have been destroyed in the last ten years (Helmore, p. 65-69, 1989). Finally, is hard to say that much of the harm that has been made to forests, have reason of poverty and indulgence (Robinson, p. 6, 1986).
In conclusion, people and their actions over the forests are causing important harms to the environment. Humans seem like ignoring the importance of forests. It is important not only because the species depend on forest, but also because forests are the biggest sources. Thus, if we want to develop and take permanently resources from there, we need to protect it, and find out a way to make possible at the same time our sustain and forest sustain.


Monday, February 28, 2005

Rough Draft Crocodiles Endangered in Florida

ABSTRACT

After read several articles about the American crocodile, which is endangered in Florida, I became interested in it, because is been considering to down-listed the species from endangered to threatened because of it’s recovering in those areas. There is a controversy between The Fish and Wildlife Service and the environmentalist because they don’t agree about what to do with the American crocodile. I think that more research should be done about the reasons why the American crocodile migrate, become extinct and recover. Next, we could look for areas where the American crocodile could be move to, instead of kill some of them. Then, knowing the exact meaning of the words endangered and threatened, decide whether or not the American crocodile should be down-listed.





Recently sights of the American crocodile in Florida’s areas are showing that it is coming back. The American crocodile is recovering beaches of Boca Raton, Intercostals Waterway at Jupiter, Miami Beach, and shallows of Lake Worth and near the Mansion of Palm Beach. Actually, it is estimated that crocodile population ranges from 400 to 1000 adults (Moler, 2002). In 1975, the species was listed as endangered in Florida because of the hunting for the animal’s hide and the loss of habitat to development. Thus, in 1978, there were a total of 20 to 22 nests annually. Today there are between 40 and 50 nests annually (Moler, 2002). Therefore, is evident that the species is recuperating because there are up from approximately 200 to 400 more than twenty years ago (Daerr, 2000).
Moreover, is relevant to comment that there is a big issue about the relation between crocodile and people. Humans relate all kinds of crocodiles with aggression. In addition, People do not know the difference between American crocodile, Australian crocodile and alligators. These last two vary considerably from American crocodile, especially in their behavior. Alligators and crocodiles are the two native North American crocodilian species in the U.S. Crocodiles inhabit salt or brackish water, and alligators prefer freshwater. American crocodiles have a long, tapering, v-shaped snout—opposed to the u-shaped snout of the alligator. In addition, crocs have a distinguishing fourth tooth that protrudes prominently outside of the lower jaw when closed. The largest American crocodile was 15 feet, but they are routinely found at lengths of 8 to 12 feet. Consequently, the behavior would determinate whether if it is a danger for the society or not. American crocodiles are timid reptiles and are especially wary of people. Female crocs are known to completely abandon their nests after just a single disturbance. There are a few problems about the returning of the American crocodile, now there is people in those areas where the crocodile is recovering, and some people are afraid for their families and their owns, even if the American crocodile don’t represent a real danger for them. Therefore, there is a dilemma about the crocodile’s destiny and its place on the list of species.
Because the American crocodile is recovering in some areas of Florida, the Fish and Wildlife Service is recommending that the American crocodile be reclassified from “endangered” to “threatened”. However, the increasing crocodile population is threatening people, which they confuse with alligators so they want to kill some of them, but I think that we can find other ways to deal with the problem.

The species that are listed as endangered or threatened are protected by the Endangered Species Act (ESA), which says that we have to respect some rules about our interaction with those animals. "Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties"(Foreman, p.1, 2002). That means that we would receive a punishment if we break those rules. The ESA defines an endangered species as any species which is "in danger to extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A threatened species is "one likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range." (Foreman, p.2, 2002). In addition, is very important to know that the word "taking" include the following actions: to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or to attempt to engage in any such conduct. These prohibitions are for "any person". "Person is defined broadly in the ESA, and includes government entities as well as individuals and business entities" (A Stanford Environmental Law Society Handbook, p.105, 2001). I found this quote very interesting because controversially I don't agree with that. The reason is that I think that sometimes the government, which we all know that have political and economical power, have done things against to animals without receiving any punishment. For example, the logging is a way to harm the animals. That destroy their habitat, which most of the time force those animals either to leave or to die. Some of them are listed, I believe that is an indirectly way to cause harm, but at the end, toward the animal, is harm. “Habitat destruction presents the greatest threat to the survival of species in United States and throughout the world” (The Law of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Management, p.245, 2002).
In order to decide if the species should be listed as endangered or threatened, The Fish and Wildlife Service must consider some factors as the numbers of a species and the possibilities to continue existing. However, it not includes considerations of economic effects of listing (Foreman, p.3, 2002). Consequently, we need to know the number of crocodiles in Florida. Actually, scientists estimates that there are around 800 to 1,000 crocodiles in Florida, which is a population that can double in the summer and fall when hatchlings appear, when 30 years ago, were just 200 American crocodiles living there (Mazzotti, 2000). We can see that the number of crocodiles in Florida is increasing, which is a good sign for a species that tottered toward extinction during the 20th century. In addition, is fundamental to know the possible reasons or causes that made the American crocodile to migrate, become extinct and recover Florida’s areas. The crocodile lives in underground hollow, large burrows, or in sand dunes. If the female crocodile is ready to lay her eggs but has no place to bury them, she will find an empty one; she will take it over as her own. However, Pollution, traffic, development, diseases, and predators could be some of those reasons. The development also could have cause that dredged canals have become crocodile favorites. Furthermore, there is a doubt about if the crocodile was forced to move because of the overpopulation. Scientifics have the theory that says that the migration of the crocodile could be a result of sustained population growth, in other words the crocodile population is outgrowing its existing habitat, and David Hitzig, of Busch Wildlife Sanctuary in Jupiter, he agrees with the scientist, but he has one more theory, which says that someone may have raised the crocodile illegally in captivity and decided to release them when they grew too big (Moler, 2002). Unlike Hitzig I believe that to be consider, the last theory is kind of absurd, because that could happen, but with a few people. Not all the crocodiles are covering Florida because their owners can’t stand them anymore. I mean, not everybody have a crocodile at home, I think most of the people don’t. Consequently, that theory shouldn’t be count at the time to discuss the possible reasons of the American crocodile’s recovering. On the other hand, I think that scientists should include in their investigations, about the crocodile case, the increasing of the numbers of people population in the state of Florida. If it were outgrowing its population habitat, the adult’s crocodiles would force the youngest ones to move or leave their territory. The young crocodiles would move and make a new nest. Seeming that there is not more natural places to go, crocodiles would migrate. In addition, another consideration could be that there might be people overpopulation in Florida, which would directly affect the crocodile’s state. The 2000 Census found 15,982,378 persons resident in Florida. This was an increase of 3,044,452 persons (23.5%) above the 1990 Census. The amount of increase was the third highest in the country. The rate of increase was the seventh highest in the country (Federation for the American Immigration Reform, 2000). Because of that, many species could seem forced to move somewhere else and may be that’s why the crocodiles have been seen more that two decades before. People are intimidated because they think that the crocodile is a danger for families and their own. Conversely, there is not a single known case of a crocodile injuring or killing a person, but there has been a record about alligators attack, and most of the people mistaken about which one is crocodile or alligator. Unlike alligators Crocodiles are very shy, non-aggressive, hard to catch and relatively timid when it comes to interactions with humans.
When I begun my investigation, I though that I should investigate more about the areas where the American crocodile could be removed to, considering the crocodile’s population there and the environment. So, I believed that it could be a good solution for the crocodile’s problem. However, since I started reading more about crocodiles, I found out that for animals to be removed is not an option. For most of the animals to be removed result frustrating. They just go crazy. Consequently, to move the animal from one to a different place is not good for their mind health. “The method used to catch alligators cannot be used for crocodiles because there is a possibility that they could die, according to Tim Regan, wildlife biologist for FFWCC. Instead, FFWCC is trying to throw a snatch hook into the crocodiles' thick hide to capture them. Regan stressed that because the hide is so thick, they would not be injuring the animals” (Garg, 2004). Part of the problem is that you relocate them and they come back. There is case in which a crocodile traveled 140 miles to return to the place from which it had been removed. "Somehow they navigate their way back." (Garg, 2004).
Biodiversity is the variability of all living organisms, including animal and plant species, of the genes of all these organisms, and of the terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems of which they are part. It is important because biodiversity makes up the structure of the ecosystems and habitats that support essential living resources, including wildlife, fisheries and forests. It helps provide for basic human needs such as food, shelter, and medicine. It composes ecosystems that maintain oxygen in the air, enrich the soil, purify the water, protect against flood and storm damage and regulate climate. Biodiversity also has recreational, cultural, spiritual and aesthetic values (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2003). Consequently, the crocodile as each species represent an equal importance to maintain the balance in the biodiversity, because if there is one extinct, the chain is broken. Everything is basically like a cycle.
I think that one of the solutions to solve this problem about the crocodile could be done by making Wildlife refuges and preserves which are another way to protect and save threatened and endangered species. I think that is the American crocodile shouldn’t be down-listed because since the species is making a come back we should learn about it, and don’t let them go away never again. Also, if there is not big difference between endangered and threatened, let the American crocodile stays in its place.

Effects of Divorce

In relationships where occur a divorce, children are the most affected by the rupture. They loss the base for their development which is the structure (Wallerstein & Blakeslee, pp 11, 1990). The protection, knowledge, habits, love, and the good example that a family could give to the child are some of the factors that influence the life of the kid. The separation between parents could be also frustrating for them, and sometimes the harm is permanently for husbands and wives who have passed through the divorce. (Fred Moody, pp 70, 1990).
Occasionally, children that have experimented a divorce between their parents, demonstrate some of the consequences when they become insecure, show fear, anxious, and anger in one or another way. These signals could make us expect a prone divorce and sexual promiscuity when they grow up (Lytle, pp 11, 1994). Therefore, the drastic or unexpected changes may cause a disaster in the child’s mind. “But divorce may well be a more difficult tragedy for the child to master psychologically” (Wallerstein & Blakeslee, pp 13, 1990). Divorce could make a crisis followed by disequilibrium and for the child, those are difficult to get out of it, also it takes long time.
In conclusion, children are significantly affected by divorce because their structure is broken, parents may become aggravated and most of the time for both it hard to keep going after this experience. I think that in the present divorces are impossible to prevent. For this reason I suggest to divorced parents to still friendly each other, I mean not to end the relationship with anger or fights because it would help the child feel better and protected. Therefore, the consequences would be softer and lowers than never before.

Research Paper Proposal "Crocodiles Endangered in Florida"


I became interested in the American crocodile which is endangered in Florida, after reading several articles about it. Actually, the American crocodile is resurfacing on the beaches of Boca Raton, Intercostals Waterway at Jupiter, Miami beaches, shallows of Lake Worth near the Mansion of Palm Beach. In 1978, there were a total of 20 to 22 nests annually, while now there are between 40 and 50 nests annually, moreover it is estimated of the current crocodile population range from 400 to 1000 adults (Moler, 2002). These increasing of crocodiles population is intimidating people, who think that the species represents a danger for their families and their own. However, there has never been a documented crocodile attack. People do not know the difference between crocodiles and alligators, and consequently, they confuse them. Alligators are more aggressive than crocodiles, also crocodile color ranges from olive green to gray compared with the black hue of alligators, and their snouts are narrower. In addition, recently people in Florida are making more calls to the state wildlife commission to remove animals than before. Because the American crocodile is recovering in some areas of Florida, the Fish and Wildlife Service is recommending that the American crocodile be reclassified from “endangered” to “threatened”, however the increasing crocodile population is threatening people, which they confuse with alligators so they want to kill some of them, but I think that we can find other ways to deal with the problem.
I plan on writing two things that I think should be done. First, more research should be done about the reasons why the American crocodile migrate, become extinct and recover. Second, we could look for areas where the American crocodile could be move to, instead of kill some of them. Third, knowing the exact meaning of the words endangered and threatened decide whether or not the American crocodile should be down-listed.
I have found several articles that help me with the information about the endangered crocodile in Florida, but I still need more information about why the American crocodile should be down-listed.

Summary Response of “Crocodiles resurface in Florida, including on beaches” by Warren Richey

In the article “Crocodiles resurface in Florida, including on beaches” from the Christian Science Monitor website, Richey Warren claims that the crocodiles which are listed as endangered species have been seen recently in the surf off the beach at Boca Raton. These new sightings of crocs have made rumors that the crocodile are coming back. For the environmentalists that work to take the American crocodile back, it would signify the greatest victory since the seeming inevitable extinction of the crocs in the US. Warren describes the American crocodile as a very shy and non-aggressive animal, that also can tolerate salt water but only for limited periods. Today it is estimated that the crocodile population ranges from 400 to 1000 adults. However, there is a doubt about if the crocodile was forced to move because of the overpopulation. There are two theories: the first one which says that someone may have raised the crocs illegally in captivity and decided to release them when they grew too big, and the second one is that the croc population is outgrowing its existing habitat. In addition, there is an important issue about this, because if the scientists verify that migration is the result of sustained population growth, the American crocodile would be reclassified from “endangered” to “threatened” by the Fish and Wildlife Service and the conservationists argue is the down-listing is not the right move in the present.
I agree with the conservationists because I believe that we do not really know enough about the crocodiles to down list them. We know that crocs are dangerous animals, so we should threat them with respect, but it seems like we do not know enough about their importance for the environment. The crocodiles, like the rest of the animals, represent an important part of the biodiversity or biological diversity, which is the diversity in species, ecology and gene, that we need to sustain and keep going in the world. These three factors are interconnected to each other and the damage to one would affect another, and vice versa.
On the other hand, I agree one of the ideas that the author has mentioned. The crocodile movement could be a consequence of the overpopulation, forcing in this way, to younger animals to search for a new area to nests.
In conclusion, we should support the conservationists to defend the American crocodile from being reclassified from endangered to threatened. The American crocodile is considered the non-aggressive animal and is also shy, different from alligators. Even though, we should show equal respect to them.

Friday, February 25, 2005

Argumentative Essay "Crocodiles endangered in Florida "

Recently sights of the American crocodile in Florida’s areas are showing that it is coming back. The American crocodile is resurfacing on the beaches of Boca Raton, Intercostals Waterways at Jupiter, Miami beaches, and others. Therefore, people, scientifics and conservationists are concern about the American crocodile destiny. Moreover, the Fish and Wildlife Service is recommending that the American crocodile be reclassified from endangered to threatened (2002,March 12,The Cs Monitor, from: http//www.csmonitor.com). People argue that they are fearful to crocs because of their children and their own. Now that the American crocodile is recovering areas of Florida, there are people living in those areas, and as a result, they are making more calls to the state wildlife commission to remove animals (2000,Nov-Dec, National Park Conservation Association from: www.npca.org). Conversely, there has never been a record of a crocodile attack. Scientifics have the theory that says that the migration of the crocodile could be a result of sustained population growth, and if they prove that is like that, The Fish and Wildlife Service will down-list the American crocodile (2002,March12, The Cs Monitor, from: www.csmonitor.com).
Unlike scientifics and the Fish and Wildlife service, conservationists think that now is not the right moment to down-list it. However, I think that we can find other ways to deal with the problem instead of killing some of them.

First, we could start studying more about why the American crocodile is migrating, become extinct, and recover. These reasons are going to help us at the time to take a decision. Whether or not the American crocodile should be down-listed. There are two theories that mentions the possible reasons, one says that the American crocodile could have migrated because of the sustained population, which means that there are too many crocodiles that the old ones forced the youngest to live the nest “crocodiles will eat crocodiles” (Moler, 2002, The Cs Monitor, from: www.csmonitor.com), and the another one that believe that someone may have raised the croc illegally in captivity and decided to release them when they grew too big.
Second, we could look for areas where the American crocodile could be move to. Considering the crocodile’s population there and the environment conditions. This option of remove the animal to grow in another place, I think is the best option for the species. Since is recovering we should be graceful and consequently, not kill some of them. In that way we would save the environment and the biodiversity, which would make sure our sustain in this world.
Third, to judge if the species should be down-listed, I believe that we should investigate more about what the terms “endangered” and “threatened” include. Is not enough to know that “endangered” means we believe a species would become extinct if nothing is done, and “threatened” means we believe a species may become extinct.The protection is the same, but there are more optimistic (Byers, June 8, Tampa Trib, from: www.tampatrib.com). Because they we need to really know about it before reach an agreement.

In conclusion, there are other ways to deal with the problem of the American crocodile’s down-listed, like I said before we could study possibilities of remove it instead of kill some of them.

Thursday, February 24, 2005

“Bambi has outgrown the forest, and alternatives for control are elusive, inefficient or unpleasant,”

I have read an article called “Bambi has outgrown the forest, and alternatives for control are elusive, inefficient or unpleasant,” and I have found that there is a big problem about it and there are also many people concerned about the white-tailed deer’s destiny. In the North East of the U.S. , especially in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, New Jersey, Wisconsin, New York and Massachusetts, the white-tailed deer are overwhelming their habitat over these parts of the United States. People have many deer-auto collisions and each year, there are more than 29,000 human injuries, and the vehicle repair costs are too high. As a result, there is an dilemma about what we should do with the deer and what is the best option for the species. Some of the possible solutions are:
1. Reintroduce natural predators
2. Kill some
3. Use Immunocontraceptives (birth control)
4. Relocate
5. Use Combination bait and shoot plans
6. Use Surgical sterilization
However, those solutions are hard to enact for of many reasons; for example, birth control has limited effectiveness and it includes high costs. The relocation is not an option because it is stressful for the deer. To introduce natural predators, which is where we live, we have to teach people about how to deal with it and study about it too, because people could be killed. About the combination of bait and plants there is low public acceptance. The surgical sterilization is expensive.

I think the best solution could be to reintroduce natural predators. I know that is hard and dangerous because this is where we live and where we interact with everything, but we are humans and we should be able to learn about how to deal with predators and how to be away from those areas, or what to do in those cases; we are supposed to have the capacity of learn more easily than animals. In addition, in order to develop we should use our brain more and cooperate with the alternatives which will define the white-tailed deer’s destiny.



If you want to know more about deers “clik here” !!!!

Tuesday, February 01, 2005

My favorite MOVIE



My favorite movie is The Lord of the Rings with Elijah Wood, Ian McKellen, Viggo Mortensen, Sean Astin, Orlando Bloom, Andy Serkis, Billy Boyd, Dominic Monaghan, John Rhys-Davies, Liv Tyler, Bernard Hill, Miranda Otto, Hugo Weaving and the director Peter Jackson.



Official Lord of the Rings ring measuring 6mm wide with the elvish script from the popular Lord of the Rings triolgy.Above message engraved in the Elvish language, an ancient language of Middle-earth.

The Lord of the Rings movie has many awards recorded. I think this movie is not only interesting but also creative. I am sure that many people share this though with me!!




Monday, January 31, 2005

Summary Response of “Return of a Reptile” by Elizabeth G. Daerr

In the article “Return of a Reptile” from the wildlife website, Elizabeth Daerr claims that human blunder impedes American crocodiles’ recovery. Although the Australian crocodile looks like the American crocodile, Australian crocodiles are more aggressive than American crocodiles. The author explains that because of the loss of habitat, the species was listed as endangered in Florida in 1975. Today it is estimated that between 500 to 1.200 crocodiles live in Florida. The American crocodile is expanding into its historic territory, and with it the alteration as a restrict fresh water flows through an Everglades National Park, which contribute watering for agriculture and flood control, and consequently there is not enough water for hatchlings. Daerr holds that by Moler and Mazzotti the American crocodile cannot be removed entirely from federal protection because of human reaction toward the creature. “If you don't solve the problem of human intolerance, your program will never be a success,” Mazzotti said.
I agree with the author because I believe that we should address the problem of human intolerance to the crocodiles before we can do something about it. Another issue is that the people do not know the difference between American and Australian crocodile behaviors. Humans relate all kinds of crocodiles with aggression. In addition, people think that alligators are the same as crocodiles, and actually vary considerably from crocodiles. Alligators are more aggressive and they have differences in their physical characteristics. One way to help the people know more about it could be promoting articles or making commercials about the crocodiles using the media. Furthermore, in this way it will be easier for the people to get the information.
Moreover, American crocodile habitat extends from big Pine Key and through Biscayne Bay and the Everglades, and this development has increased the number of human interactions with crocodiles, making mare calls to the state wildlife commission to remove animals. Therefore, the species has been upgraded to endangered status.
In conclusion, we should change our attitude toward crocodiles to learn how to live with them, instead of removing them from their territory. The American crocodile are different from the Australian crocodile, especially in their behavior.



Elizabeth G. Daerr - The Return of a Reptile. National Parks Conservations Associations. Retrieved Jan. 25,2005 from:
http://www.npca.org/magazine/2000_issues/november_december/Rare_and_Endangered.asp